Thursday, 12 July 2018

Last few days for registrations of Certificate course on IPR and Pharmacovigilance

We are closing with the registrations of IPR and Pharmacovigilance courses on Sunday.  Hurry up to confirm your registration.

Final year B. Pharm students get our Online GPAT test series completely free of cost with the admission to any of one courses.

IPR Course:

Pharmacovigilance course:

Friday, 6 July 2018

Pharmacogenetics_The science of personalized medicine

One of the Pharma Literati interns for 2018 is involved in writing blog articles for us. Here comes the first of the series on Pharmacogenetics.


The man, all sweaty and troubled asks the pharmacist, "I did not have any of the listed side effects. Should I be worried?"

The pharmacists' composed reply, "You're unique!"

The retort, "Am I?" The man was all boiling.

My question, "Is he unique?"

Well let’s find out!

Pharmacogenetics is the study of inherited genetic differences in drug metabolic pathways which can affect individual responses to drugs, both in terms of therapeutic effect as well as adverse effects. The idea shadowed is that a person's genes influence their responses to medicinal drugs.

The term, pharmacogenetics can be interchanged with the term pharmacogenomics. This relatively new field allows us to combine pharmacology and genomics to develop effective and safe medication dosages which are specific to an individual’s DNA makeup. Wow!

It is hence, concluded that the tailoring of the drug treatments to an individual genetic make up, a form of personalized medicine.

The boon: Minimalization of the side effects from the drugs.

The study of pharmacogenetics originated in the mid-20th century. In those days, primaquine-induced haemolysis was associated with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. In this deficiency, the pentose phosphate cascade in erythrocytes is blocked, resulting in a reduction in the synthesis of reduced glutathione. Reduced glutathione protects erythrocytes against several drug-induced oxidation reactions, thereby preventing haemolysis. A decrease in the availability of reduced gluthation increases the risk of haemolysis, especially in the presence of certain drugs such as primaquine.

Before technology allowed the determination of individual genetic variation, pharmacogenetics was mainly based on gross ethnic variation. Primaquine-induced haemolysis was particularly prominent among African Americans and people originating from the Mediterranean area with G6PD deficiency and diagnosed by means of enzymatic assays.

With the introduction of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), isolation of individual genetic variations became possible. One of the first examples was the discovery of different subtypes of the enzyme N-acetyl transferase-2 (NAT-2); this is a phase-II enzyme that is relevant in the metabolic pathway of the antituberculosis drug, isoniazid. In some patients, known as “slow acetylators”, sustained high plasma levels of isoniazid with a “normal” dosage causes peripheral neuropathy and liver toxicity. The difference in isoniazid-metabolising capacity between normal acetylators and slow acetylators was found to be the result of differences in base sequence within the DNA segment encoding for the synthesis of NAT-2.

Let us direct ourselves towards the evidences, and the witnesses too.

1. The beautiful tale of Vitamin E.
It has been lit that vitamin E can be used, in certain genotypes, to lower the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes, but in the same patients with another genotype, vitamin E can raise the risk of cardiovascular disease. A study was carried out, showing vitamin E is able to increase the function of HDL in those with the genotype haptoglobin 2-2 who suffer from diabetes. HDL is a lipoprotein that removes cholesterol from the blood and is associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerosis and heart disease. However, if you have the misfortune to possess the genotype haptoglobin 2-1, the study shows that this same treatment can drastically decrease your HDL function and cause cardiovascular disease.

The Pharmacogenetic Tool assists in predicting which drugs will be effective in various patients.

2. The drug Plavix blocks platelet reception and is the second best selling prescription drug in the world, however, it is known to warrant different responses among patients.

In toto, be-aware and beware of your own self!

The human genome contains all the hereditary information and is encoded in DNA- embedded macromolecules called chromosomes. Each human cell contains a total of 23 pairs of large linear nuclear chromosomes, giving a total diploid number of 46 per cell (23 originating from the father and 23 from the mother). DNA includes both a functional and a non-coding sequence (99% of the human DNA is not functional, as far as we know). The functional part of DNA, which codes for the synthesis of a protein, is called a gene. A difference in base sequence within DNA is referred to as a mutation. Most mutations are clinically irrelevant because they do not lie within the functional part of DNA. The field of pharmacogenetics is only concerned with mutations affecting gene function. Because of mutations, several variations called alleles, exist for each gene. If mutant alleles are prevalent in more than 1% of the normal population, they are called polymorphisms. Because of this, mutant alleles, as a consequence of spontaneous mutations, are excluded from the definition “polymorphism”. The most elementary polymorphism is called a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP [pronounced SNIP]). SNPs are single mutations that differ by only one base pair from the most prevalent allele called “wild type”.

Pharmacogenetics focuses in particular on polymorphisms encoding for:
1. Proteins affecting pharmacokinetic parameters (drug metabolising enzymes or transporter proteins)
2. Proteins affecting pharmacodynamic parameters (receptors or ion channels)
3. Proteins affecting the pathogenesis of disease.

Much of current clinical interest is at the level of pharmacogenetics, involving variation in genes involved in drug metabolism with a particular emphasis on improving drug safety. The wider use of pharmacogenetic testing is viewed by many as an outstanding opportunity to improve prescribing safety and efficacy. As pharmacogenetics continues to gain acceptance in clinical practice, when to utilize pharmacogenetics will be of importance in advancing patient care.

However, a coin has two sides.

Pharmacogenetics has become a controversial issue in the area of bioethics. There are three main ethical issues that have risen.

Pharmacogenetics is believed to account for inter-ethnic differences (e.g., between patients of Asian, Caucasian and African descent) in adverse events and efficacy profiles of many widely used drugs in cancer chemotherapy.

The pharmacogenetic motto!
The Right Drug for
The Right Patient and
The Right Dosage!
With Genes, Mutations happen.

Genes load the Gun, while the Environment pulls the trigger.

Tuesday, 26 June 2018

How to prepare for GPAT 2019?_Poll results by Pharma Literati

We have recently conducted a poll for preparing for GPAT. We received total 59 votes. The results for the same are as follows:

To assist the students for self study, we are launching "GPAT-Lakshya", a unique initiative by Pharma Literati helping the students prepare for the exam on their own. 

Keep following our blog, facebook page, LinkedIn account, Instagram account to know more..

Thursday, 21 June 2018

Campus Ambassadors (Students) required all across India_At Pharmacy institute level

Pharma Literati is pleased to announce the campus ambassador opportunities for undergraduate/ post-graduate students in pharmacy/ life sciences domain. 

Looking for passionate, career-focused, highly motivated individuals who wish to join the dynamic team of Pharma Literati as campus ambassador

What would you do as campus ambassador?
1.     You would be a single point contact for pharma literati team for the institute.
2.     You need to provide information related to events at your college to our forum. This would get published via the blog.
3.    Also, you need to distribute the newsletters by Pharma Literati at the institute level.
4.  You also need to provide information related to various initiatives taken by Pharma Literati team and the Centre of Excellence for Pharma Education at your institute.
5.  You would receive a certificate as a campus ambassador from the Pharma Literati Centre of Excellence. 
6. You would be eligible to participate in our various initiatives free of cost. 
7. You would be part of WhatsApp group comprising various campus Ambassadors, which would be a knowledge sharing platform for the students. 
8. You need to write articles, interviews, news item etc.
9. Top 3 campus Ambassadors would be get an internship opportunity with stipend of 10000 Rs, 7500 Rs and 5000 Rs during April to June 2019.

For any queries, please send an email to

Send your CVs to before 31st July, 2018. One or two candidates to be shortlisted per institute.

Tuesday, 5 June 2018

Sunday, 3 June 2018

CPIPR Enters 3rd Batch - July to October 2018

Pharma Literati Centre of Excellence in Pharma Education announces the 3rd Batch of CPIPR (Certificate Course in Pharmaceutical Intellectual Property Rights). More than 150 students have already taken this course in the first 2 batches. 

For whom?
1.             Pharmacy/ Chemistry/ Biosciences/ Life sciences/ Biotechnology/ Zoology/ Botany students in undergraduate/ post graduate / PhD/ Research fellows;
2.             Faculties form any of these streams;
3.             Industry professionals** from Pharma/ Biotechnology/ Life sciences;
4.             Anyone who is willing to make a career in R & D; Business development; International Business; Drug discovery; Generic drug development; Academic research; Regulatory affairs; Intellectual Property Rights and the like;
5.             Students willing to pursue higher studies in USA/Europe/ Canada/ Australia/ Russia/ Korea/ Japan/ other countries as PhD/ MBA/ MS/ Masters.
** Since this is a basic level course, it is designed for non-IPR professionals.

Significance of the course:
Life sciences is going through a transition phase with abundant activities in Research and Development arena. The increased focus to R & D in academia and industries has led to Intellectual Property Rights at the centerstage. The increase in patenting activities by the academia is a welcome sign for bridging the industry academia gap.

We at Pharma Literati are proud to be associated with many institutes in these activities and are on a mission called “Pharma Innovation Yatra, 2017”. As a part of these activities, we are proud to announce another effort to fill the vacuum which was observed in many institutes during this yatra by launching this course on IPR.

The upgraded syllabus of pharmacy at many institutes, universities includes IPR as a core subject or a part of the subject. However, the thorough understanding of the subject is needed considering its global nature. We believe the course would be a stepping stone in this long journey of Innovation.
1.    Specially designed basic level course for Patents and IPR;
2.    Customized for the pharmaceutical industry;
3.    Delivered by the faculty from the industry;
4.  This is an effort of bridging the industry - academia gap highlighting the significance of Intellectual Property Rights to the pharmacy professionals and students;

Course contents:
This course consists 6 different modules:
The pharmaceutical business
The module discusses the working of the pharmaceutical industry and the business models globally.
The pharmaceutical R & D
This module discusses the working of the R & D teams.
Intellectual Property Rights: Introduction
This module discusses various forms of Intellectual Property Rights.
IPR: With specific reference to pharma
This module discusses the patentability criteria with specific reference to pharmaceutical industry including various related terminologies.
IPR: Indian patent scenario
This module discussed the Indian patent scenario.
Patent commercialization and licensing
This module discusses the basics of patent licensing and commercialization of the invention.

Course duration:
3 months including the online lectures.
Course methodology:
·      The course consists of 6 different modules. The course contents would be available online in the PDF format.
·       Fortnightly, one module would be uploaded on the website and would be available to study. The students can also download the contents for the future reference.
·       For each module, there would be one session by course faculty.
·     The students have an option to be part of the WhatsApp group for discussion and solving the queries for the course.
·      At the end of the course, an online examination would be conducted. The examination would be based on the contents of the modules and the news items on the Pharma Literati blog. The questions would be multiple choice questions. Students need to subscribe or visit to the blog free of cost.
·       The successful students would receive the certificate at their address of correspondence.

Benefits of the course:
·     Certificate would be provided to the students completing the course successfully.
·     Alumni status of Pharma Literati’s centre of excellence in pharma education, providing free access to the events and all the competitions.
·       Interaction with the industry experts and their live experiences.
·       Assistance in patent filing for the inventions at the institutes.
·       Access to the events and programs of the partner institutes.
·       Discounts upto 35 % for the other courses of the centre of excellence.
·       Access to whatsapp group as member.

Course fees:
Fees for the students:     Rs. 6000 + 1080 (GST) = 7080 Rs.
For others:                       Rs. 8000 + 1440 (GST) = 9440 Rs.
Send an email to to know the mode of payment.

Please fill the forms at: